(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Indians at work"

INDIANS 

AT • WORK 




i; 



7 



A NEWS SHEET FOR. INDIANS 
. AND THE INDIAN SERVICE 

0F-INP1AN-AFE 

WASHINGTON , D. C . 




INDIANS AT WORK 

CON TENTS OF THE ISSUE OF OCTOBER 1, 1937 

Volume V Number 1 

Page 

Editorial John Collier 1 

Important Shifts Of Personnel In Lake States 6 

Recent Personnel Shifts 7 

Transfers Of Chief Clerks 8 

Changes In Indian Arts And Crafts Board Personnel 8 

New Construction For Alaska 9 

Data On Indian Service Uni ts 10 

President Roosevelt Affirms Principle of Conservation 

Of Indian Assets 12 

Reorganization News 13 

Adaptations Of Eskimo Clothing To Meet Modern Market 

Demands Virgil R. Farrell . 14 

Interior Department Report On Safety 17 

Safety Leo Doud And George Thompson .... 19 

Indian Service To Administer Alaska Reindeer Industry 20 

Paintings Done By Students At Santa Fe Indian School 

Receive Wide Recognition 23 

Visitors To The Washington Office 24 

More Personnel Changes 24 

Sixty Indian Students Work In Menominee Forests During 

Summer J. H. Mitchell ... 25 

The Camp Marquette Canteen A. E. Rehberg .... 26 

Navajo And Pueblo Indian Dancing , 27 

How An Oklahoma County Was Named 34 

Training Indians In Safety Technique 35 

People Said It Couldn't Be Done Elizabeth Hart ... 36 

Papagos Keep Up Farm Tasks T. B. Hall 37 

Screening Houses Through Horsemanship Ralph S. Hicks ... 38 

Wild Life Regulations Approved By Blackfeet Council 41 

Survey Reveals High Incidence Of Rheumatic Heart 

Disease Among Indian Children 41 

Editorial Opinion Of Fifty-Three Years Ago 42 

A Little Pima Girl Goes Visiting Frances Johnson . . 43 

Buffalo Teller Speaks Again Herbert Holy Elk . 44 

Yahola, Aged Creek Leader, Die" 44 

Training School For Road Work At Truxton Canon Cecil Edwards .... 46 

Cover Page Picture • 46 

From CCC - ID Reports 47 



A 90 -YEA R-OLD INDIAN FROM THE ROUND 7ALLEY 
RESERVATION, NEAR COVELO , CALIFORNIA 




Photograph by Carl Kley - San Francisco 




VOLUME. Y 






m 



f J 






0CT06LE. 1, 1937 



NUMBLR 1 



This editorial gives a few perspectives of Indian facts 

for the past four years. 

****** 

Extension has compiled, for the annual report, statistics 
of the Indian acreage transferred from white lessee control to In- 
dian use. Among the items are these: 

In 1934, the Montana Blackfeet grazed 44,926 acres of their 
own land. In 1936 they grazed 324,531. 

The Indians of the Crow reservation in Montana in 1934 
grazed 62,343 acres. In 1936 they grazed 142,334 acres. 

At Fort Belknap, Montana, the Indian-grazed acreage was in- 
creased from 177,788 in 1934 to 285,250 in 1936. 

At- Fort Hall, Idaho, the Indian-grazed acreage more than 
douhled, from 80,000 to 171,900. 

The Shoshones and Arapahoes in Wyoming made about the same 
record - from 244,138 acres in 1934 to 536,531 acres in 1936. 



These figures mean increased Indian industry, increased 
capital values owned and used "by Indians, and some increase of white 
opposition to the program of Indian use of Indian lands. 

****** * 

About one year ago, I listened to the prediction (it came 
from friendly and well-informed sources) that the Jicarilla-Apaches 
would not be ready for Indian Reorganization Act enterprises for 
years and years to come. 

But talking with the Jicarillas, I encountered questions 
which probed to the very heart of the problem and the hope repre- 
sented by the Reorganization- Act. 

The prophecies were upset by the Jicarillas. They voted 
on their constitution July 3, 1937 and their vote was 242 to 2. 

They voted on their charter September 4, 1937, and their vote was 
204, unanimous. 

Now the Jicarillas are taking, with unanimity, steps 
which probably will establish their once-reputedly backward tribe 
as the first in the whole country to take over and manage its own 
trading operations - wholesale and retail live-stock and commodities 
on a cooperative baBis. 

****** 

The broad record of the Indian Reorganization Act yields 
these figures: 

Indians numbering 252, 2U are now under the Act. They 



are grouped into tribes or bands numbering 206. They represent 

68.8 per cent of the total of Indians in the United States and Alaska. 

Sixty-nine tribes, with 89,143 members, have adopted con- 
stitutions and by-laws under the Reorganization Act. Forty-one 
tribes with 40,247 members have ratified their charters of incor- 
poration. 

No tribe or group which has adopted the Act or which (in 
Oklahoma and Alaska) has been brought within the terms of the Act 
by blanket legislation, has asked by vote or by majority petition 
to be relieved of the terms of the Act. 

So much unanimity could not have been prophesied three 
years ago. How different are these solid facts from the announce- 
ments made in anti-reorganization-act propaganda from time to timel 

******* 

Indians as a pan-American subject are coming more and 
more into their own. There hardly is a country south of the Rio 
Grande, with any important Indian population, which is not being 
stirred by Indian welfare movements. And an International Congress 
to deal with Indian matters has been tentatively planned for LaPaz, 
Bolivia, next summer. There are more than 25,000,000 individuals 
properly and genuinely termed Indians - knowing themselves as In- 
dians and recognized as such by their neighbors in the hemisphere. 

******* 



What may "be done in our own Indian Service can have a 
significance even wider than Indians in the Western Hemisphere. An 
example has reached me lately, in a report of the Chief Native Com- 
missioner and Secretary for Native Affairs of Southern Rhodesia, 
Africa. 

The big enterprise of soil conservation, carried out as 
a human and economic and not merely an engineering program, took 
its rise in the United States on the Navajo Eeservation, and there- 
after on the Pueblo lands in New Mexico. One of the controlling 
principles of soil conservation, as worked out in the last four 
years in the United States, is conservation not through the sequestra- 
tion of resources but through their wise use. 

The Ehodesian annual report from start to finish inter- 
weaves soil conservation with training of the native chiefs, exten- 
sion work among Ehodesian natives, land-use planning; and indeed, 
the whole of the native program parallels our Indian experience. 
Soil conservation in Africa, both as a necessity realized and a pro- 
gram being attacked through physical and social techniques, has been 
decisively influenced from the United States. 

******* 

On September 15, the Southwestern demonstration of recruit- 
ment and in-service training for administrative posts in the Indian 



4 



Service was launched. Seven "internes," under a director of train- 
ing, went to work in the Rio Grande and Colorado Basin areas. These 
men will he tried out in human-relation and administrative assignments 
of increasing difficulty. As workers they will he responsihle en- 
tirely to th,e local administrative chiefs of Indian Service and other 
related Federal services. After one or two years they will compete 
in open competitive examinations for civil service status. The Na- 
tional Institute of Public Affairs has helped us find the men and 

will help us direct their training. The project will be evaluated, 
from the standpoint of the personnel needs as seen in Washington, 
by an inter-departmental committee of representatives of the De- 
partments of Agriculture and Interior and the Civil Service Commis- 
sion. This project is one of a number of comparable ones being 
launched by federal, state and municipal agencies at this time. 
It strikes toward one of the root problems of democratic government. 

JOHN COLLIER 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs 



IMPORTANT SHIFTS OF PERSONNEL APE MADE IN LAKE STATES 



Two Indians were promoted in shifts made in the Indian Service 
during September. The Indian promotions were among three executive changes 
made as part of a series of readjustments in the Great Lakes area, where a 
major step in coordinating Indian Service activities is now going forward. 

Mark L. Burns, member of the Chippewa Tribe and Superintendent of 
the Consolidated Chippewa Agency at Cass Lake, Minnesota, became coordinator 
for the Indian Service in the Lakes region and Peru Farver, Choctaw, became 
superintendent of the Tomah Agency at Tomah, Wisconsin. Dr. Louis Balsam, 
field representative of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, became head of 
the Consolidated Chippewa Agency on September 13. 

Mr. Burns is a veteran of the Indian Service, to which he trans- 
ferred from the U. S. Forest Service in 1908. He has been a lumberman, a 
logger and a timber cruiser. In 1925 he was made superintendent of the Red 
Lake Agency, Minnesota, and in 1930 was transferred to the superindendency 
of the Consolidated Chippewa Agency. Last year he became acting coordinator 
of the Lakes area while still serving as superintendent. He will now devote 
all of his time to his extensive regional activities, coordinating and as- 
sisting Indian groups in far isolated areas of three states. His wide ac- 
quaintance with both Indians and white persons gives, him an especial advan- 
tage in his expanded activity. 

Mr. Farver was educated at Choctaw tribal schools and at Kendall 
College (now the University of Tulsa). He has been boys' adviser at Hask- 
ell Institute, and was at one time superintendent of Armstrong Academy, one 
of the famous schools established by the Choctaw Nation and conducted by the 
American Indian Mission Board. Most recently he has been serving as a field 
agent, assisting Indian groups to organize and obtain the benefits of the 
Indian Reorganization Act. 

Dr. Balsam also has a record of diverse experience and achievements. 
Having won success in business, he retired from publishing and advertising 
affiliations and devoted himself to sociological study and research abroad, 
paying particular attention to primitive peoples. Returning to the United 
States he continued his sociological work and acquired a Ph. D. at Harvard. 
Subsequently he served as personnel chief of a Massachusetts prison colony 
and became professor of sociology at Clark University in Worcester. He 
joined the Indian Service and after a year of varied assignments, was selected 
to administer the Consolidated Chippewa Agency. 

Coordination of Indian Service activities in Wisconsin, Minnesota 
and Michigan" is in line with a twofold present-day Indian Service policy of 



decentralizing the Washington Office authority and cooperating closely with 
state officials. The Lake States constitute a proving-ground for this policy, 
both because the problems of these Indians are diverse and serious and be- 
cause state departments have actively concerned themselves with Indian mat- 
ters. 

An acute economic situation has faced the 26,000 Lake States Chip- 
pewas - the third largest Indian tribe in the United States, exceeded in 
numbers only by the Navajos and Sioux. With the decline of their once great 
timber industry and the break-up and subsequent sale of much of their tribal 
land, main sources of livelihood all but disappeared. Recent efforts of the 
Indian Service have been aimed to improve Indian opportunity for self-support. 

In part toward this end Washington representatives of the Indian 
Service conferred for several days in Minneapolis last May with representatives 
of the six Lake States Indian Service jurisdictions. Facts and opinions were 
pooled and plans were laid for a concerted program of Indian rehabilitation 
in the Lakes States area. An important step in this direction is being taken 
by the current personnel shifts. Major steps previously taken include: pur- 
chases of land at Bay Mills, Sugar Island and Isabella, Michigan; at Leech 
Lake, Prairie Island, Granite Falls, Morton, Mille Lac, White Earth and Grand 
Portage reservations in Minnesota; and at the Bad River, Mole Lake, Oneida, 
Red Cliff, St. Croix and Stockbridge areas in Wisconsin; inauguration of a 
work relief program of building and repairing barns and houses and of build- 
ing community houses; and revitalizing Indian groups under the Indian Reorgan- 
ization Act of June, 1934. All groups in Wisconsin, Minnesota or Michigan 
voted to include themselves within its application. Five Wisconsin groups, 
all of the nine groups in Minnesota and all three Michigan Indian groups have 
now adopted constitutions as permitted by the Act. Most of these groups have 
also adopted charters enabling them to transact business as tribal corpora- 
tions . 



RECENT PERSONNEL SHIFTS 

Recent shifts in Indian Service personnel include the following: 

Donald H. Wattson leaves the superintendency of the Consolidated Ute 
Agency to head credit work in Oklahoma, with headquarters at Oklahoma City. 
Patrick J. Fitzsimmons goes from Oklahoma to Phoenix, Arizona, to take charge 
of credit work in the Southwest, in lieu of A. L. Walker, who has been assigned 
to a special study of irrigation costs. Samuel F. Stacher, who was superin- 
tendent of the Eastern Navajo Agency before the Navajo consolidation, and who 
more recently has been serving as an assistant land field agent, now heads the 
Consolidated Ute Agency. Appropriations for land work have been curtailed and 
Mr. Stacher' s former position will not be filled. 



TRANSFERS OF CHIEF CLERKS MADE EFFECTIVE OCTOBER 1 



From To 

Walter J. Clark Fort Hall, Idaho Consolidated Chippewa, Minn. 

Everett Euneau Standing Rock, N. D. ... Blackfeet, Montana 

Fred Geeslin United Pueblos, N. M. .. Neah Bay (Under Taholah Agency, 

Washington) - to serve as 
Field Agent. 

Edythe B. Jermark .... Klamath, Oregon Warm Springs, Oregon 

Rex A. Jones Warm Springs, Oregon ... Fort Hall, Idaho 

Joseph King Consolidated Chippewa, 

Minnesota ■• Standing Rock, N. D. 

Harold M. Knutson .... Blackfeet, Montana United Pueblos, N. M. 

Joseph S. Monks Consolidated Chippewa, 

Minnesota Klamath, Oregon. 



CHANCES IN INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD PERSONNEL 

Two changes within the personnel of the Indian Arts and Crafts 
Board were made effective July 1. 

Mr. Louis C. West, who had been general manager of the Board, has 
become a member of the Indian Service's Education Division staff and also a 
member of the Board itself. The membership of the Board now consists of: 
John Collier, chairman; E. K. Burlew, Administrative Assistant to the Secre- 
tary of the Interior; Louis C. West, of the Education Division, Office of In- 
dian Affairs; Dr. A. V. Kidder, of the Carnegie Institution of Washington; 
and Lorenzo Hubbell, of Oraibi,- Arizona. 

Mr. Rene d'Harnoncourt, formerly assistant to the general manager 
of the Board, is now its general manager. 



MUCH NEEDED NEW CONSTRUCTION FOR ALASKA. WILL 
PROVIDE SCHOOL SPACE FOR 200 HITHERTO UNSCHOOLED CHILDREN 

The Interior Department Appropriation Act for the present fiscal 
year includes an item of $119,000 for the construction of several new com- 
munity day school buildings in Alaska. These replacements and additions will 
fill urgent needs. The Indian Service conducts schools at one hundred sta- 
tions in Alaska. It is hoped that Congress will approve appropriations for 
new construction in approximately ten native villages each year for four 
years. Alaska's climate is so severe in some areas that school buildings 
must be replaced every twenty years. The new construction program provides 
for combined day school and teachers' residence buildings at the following 
places: 

Mekoryuk , Nunivak Island . This is one of the most isolated stations 
in Alaska; it has communication with the outside world only once or twice a 
year and then only during the summer months when it is visited by the Indian 
Office supply ship, North Star , and usually by one other vessel such as a 
Coast Guard cutter or a trading vessel. 

Colville , on the Arctic coast east of Point Barrow . Colville is at 
the mouth of the Colville River and can be reached by boat only during a peri- 
od of about two weeks in the late summer. 

New schools will also be built at Kwiguk , at the south mouth of the 
Yukon River and at English Bay , at the southern tip of Kenai Peninsula, near 
Seward. 

At all four of these places the natives have hitherto been without 
a school. The new construction program will provide school facilities for 
approximately 200 of the 1,250 native children in Alaska who have up to now 
been denied educational privileges. 

New schools will replace old and dilapidated buildings at Teller , on 
the west coast of Seward Peninsula; Nondalton , on Lake Clark, Hooper Bay, on 
the coast of Bering Sea, one of the largest and most primitive native villages 
in Alaska; Umnak, in the Aleutian Islands; Pilot Point (Ugashik) on the north 
shore of the Alaska Peninsula where, since the school building burned about 
five years ago, school has been held in a salmon cannery; and Gambell , on St. 
Lawrence Island, where the 50-year-old school building was literally falling 
apart. 

The appropriation bill also contains an item of $196,000 for new 
hospital construction. Included in this sum is $150,000 for the construction 
of a fifty-bed hospital for natives at Bethel, on the Kuskokwim River. This 
hospital, which has been desperately needed, will serve a population of some 
4,000 natives. 



DATA ON INDIAN SERVICE 



UNIT 
i 


POPULATION LAN 


D 


PERSONNEL 


U NIT 




Indian 


Lllotted 


Total 


REOULARf TOTAL 






Number 


[ Acres 


Acres 


Number 


Number 




Alaska 


29,983 


Unallotted 


457,000 


380 


483 


Alaska 


BlBmarck Sobool 




_ 


25O 
1,207,142 


17 


17 


Bismarck School 


Blackfeet 


i+,ni 


1,161,424 


51 


280 


Blackfeet 


Carson 


5,9lM+ 


14,569 


719,343 


% 


696 


Carson 


Cherokee 


3,297 


Unallotted 


63,211 


364 


Cherokee 


Cheyenne & Arapaho 


2,818 


173,586 


173,626 
1,364,605 


76 


278 


Cheyenne & Arapaho 


Cheyenne River 


3,1+21 


917,298 


104 


333 


Cheyenne River 


Chicago Warehouse 








17 


31 


Chicago Warehouse 


Chllocco School 


_ 


_ 


8,640 


77 


B 


Chilocco School 


Choctaw 


1,81+1 


_ 


2,755 


38 


Choctaw 


Choctaw-Chickasaw San. 


— 


— 


1,920 


24 


102 


Choctaw-Chickasaw San. 


Claremore Hospital 


_ 


_ 


5 


\l 


85 


Claremore Hospital 


Coeur d' Alene 


2,21+7 


149,808 


188,062 


123 


Coeur d 1 Alene 


Colorado River 


3,984 


16,670 


392,797 


40 


168 


Colorado River 


Colvllle 


356,734 


659,382 
214,207 


59 


485 
514 


Colville 


Consolidated Chippewa 


12,936 


177,854 


86 


Consolidated Chippewa 


Consolidated Ute 


877 


39,400 


565,549 


& 


Z l?, 


Consolidated Ute 


Crow 


2,127 


1,835,918 


2,112,983 


284 


Crow 


Crow Creek 


1,572 


266,133 
1,472,724 


279,271 


? 8 
242 


166 


Ctow Creek 


Five Civilized Trices 


72,626 


1,518,675 


1,211 


Five Civilized Tribes 


Flandreau 


270 




1,040 


56 


155 


Flandreau 


Flathead 


3,051 


227,458 


472,470 


26 


288 


Flathead 


Fort Apache 


2,726 


Unallotted 


1,161,290 


106 


722 


Fort Apache 


Fort Belknap 


544,878 
482,368 


616,185 


46 


244 


Fort Belknao 


Fort Berthold 


493,501 

342,350 

1,347 


40 


160 


Fprt Berthold 


Fort Hall 

Fort Lapwai San. 


1,982 


314,513 


54 
3? 


178 
41 


Fort Hall 

Fort Lapwai San. 


Fort Peck 


2,7^7 


1,093,252 
54,372 


1,138,102 


54 


351 


Fort Peck 


Fort Totten 


1,005 


55,610 


39 


128 


Fort Totten 


Great Lakes 


7,515 


156,965 


201,254 


P 


448 


Great Lakes 


Haskell 






997 


68 


77 


Haskell 


Hoopa Valley 


1,95"+ 


17,719 


114,092 


26 


117 


Hoopa Valley 


Hopi 


3,010 


Unallotted 


2,500,000 


83 


308 


Hopi 


Jicarilla 


703 


354,327 


771,129 


55 


257 


Jioarilla 


Keshena 


2,180 


Unallotted 


231,680 


17 


& 


Keshena 


Kiowa 


6,587 


496,336 


515,810 


•fi 


Kiowa 


Klamath 


1,387 


138,779 


1,002,594 


184 


Klamath 


Menominee Kills 








15 


680 


Menominee Mills 


Meec&lero 


751 


Unallotted 


474,240 


37 


41? 
394 


UescalwTo 


Mission 


6,917 


14, 410 


258,839 


51 


Mission 


Navajo 
New York 


41+, lis 
4 523 


Unallotted 


13,423,305 


810 
6 


3,116 
53 


Nava-jo 
New York 


Osage 

Paiute 

Pawnee 


3,579 

663 

3,060 


436,114 

616 

136,261 


437,082 
233,319 
139,792 


60 


259 
242 
214 


Osage 

paiute 
pawnee 



10 



UNITS AS OF JANUARY 1, 1937 



U H I T 


POPULATIOH 


LAND 




PERSONNEL 


UNIT 




Indian 


Allotted 


Total REGULAR! TOTAL 




Number 


Acres 


Acres 














Njimber 


.Number 


Phoenix Sanatorium 


_ 


— 


81 


23 


27 : 


Phoenix Sanatorium 


Phoenix Agency and School 


413 


Unallotted 


708 


82 


97 


Phoenix Agency and Sob. 


Pierre School 




- 


336 


28 


186 


Pierre School 


Pima 


6,163 


122,810 


444,515 
2,010,403 


116 


535 Pima 


Pine Ridge 


8,579 


1,799,700 


237 


661 


Pine Ridge 


Pipestone 


862 


Unallotted 


1,151 


25 


^ 


Pipestone 


Potawatomi 


1,942 


37,195 


38,058 


10 


242 


Potawatomi 


Quapaw 


3,383 


29,089 


30,202 

543,528 


43 


213 


Quapaw 


Red Lake 


2,051 


Unallotted 


29 


M 


Xed Lake 


Rocky Boy 1 e 


l 1 ? 


Unallotted 


57,117 


28 


, 96 


Rocky Boy' s 


Rosebud 


8, 609 


1,079,575 


1,135,943 

3,480 


% 


624 


Rosebud 


Sac & Fox 


433 


Unallotted 


50 
143 


Sac & Fox 


Sacramento 


12,088 


20,175 


73,383 


26 


Sacramento 


St. Louie Warehouse 


- 


- 


- 


& 


9 


St. Louis Warehouse 


Salem 


2*944- 


8,820 


12,460 


82 


Salem 


San Carloe 


Unallotted 


1,834,240 


72 


65? 


San Carlos 


San Francisco Warehouse 


- 


- 


- 


3 


4 


San Francisco Warehouse 
San Xavier San. 


San Xavier San. 


_ 


_ 


81 


12 


26 


Sells 


5 j» 


41,580 


2,745,792 


81 


507 


Sells 


Seminole 


Unallotted 


29,354 


6 


19 


Seminole 


8equoyah Training Sohool 




- 


49 


127 


Sequoyah Training Sohool 


Shawnee 


4,591 


59,050 


60,946 


23 


163 


Shawnee 


Shawnee San. 






237 
236 


36 


40 


Shawnee San. 


Sherman Institute 


_ 


_ 


81 


89 


Sherman Institute 


Shoshone 


2,261 


194,789 


719,789 
120,694 


60 


288 


Shoshone 


Sisseton 


2,702 


119,347 
2,328,4l4 


13 


152 


Sisseton 


Standing Rook 


3,837 


2, 431, 80 J 


80 


405 


Standing Rock 


Tacoma Hospital 




- 


77 


88 


Tacoma Hospital 


Taholah 


3,009 


207,329 


230,008 


26 


201 


Taholah 


Tomah 


9,291 


2,165 


3,831 


18 


37 


Tomah 


Tongue River 


1,562 


233,120 


489,500 

39^,518 
42,042 


45 


185 


Tongue River 


Truxton Canon 


646 


Unallotted 


8 


162 


Truxton Canon 


Tulalip 


3,507 


41,335 
202,420 


102 


Tulalip 


Turtle Mountain 


6,337 


202,621 


59 


194 


Turtle Mountain 


Uintah & Ouray 


1,251 


83,408 
94»081 


332,748 


69 


324 


Uintah & Ouray 


Umatilla 


1,151 
I2,l49 


101,903 


15 


81 


Umatilla 


United Pueblos 


1,619,690 


2,044,313 


402 


1387 


United Pueblos 


Wahpeton School 


— 


_ 


261 


39 


50 


Wahpeton 


Warm Springs 


1,005 


134,520 


456A35 


37 


31?- 


Warm Springs 


Western Shoshone 


4.4l9 


Unallotted 


321,920 

68 ; 474 

788,442 


14 


264 


Western Shoshone 


Winnebago 


60,630 


4i 


89 


Winnebago 


Yakima 2 '921 
Miscellaneous 4! 483 


365,998 


42 


320 
112 


Yakima 




- 




Miscellaneous 


At Large and District 


- 


_ 


— 


388 


720 At Large and District 


Washington Office 


- 


- 


- 


233 


264 {Washington Office 


Grand Total 


373,274 


19,935,726 


52,287,619 ( 


5,583 


126,406 


Grand Total 



This number includes irregular workers and E.C.W., P.W.A, and rehabilitation 
personnel. Due to special jobs at particular agenciej the figure may vary 
considerably within a short period. 



11 



PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT AFFIRMS PRINCIPLE OF CONSERVATION OF INDIAN 
ASSETS BY VETO OF PER CAPITA PAYMENT BILLS 

Putting the seal of executive approval on the Indian Service policy 
of conserving Indian assets for productive uses, President Roosevelt has 
vetoed two bills providing per capita payments to Indians. 

One of these bills would have permitted the payment from tribal 
funds of $25 each to approximately 2,000 Chippewa Indians of the Red Lake 
(Minnesota) Reservation. The other bill would have distributed $35 of tribal 
money to each of approximately 3,100 Seminoles of Oklahoma. These funds, 
while owned by the Indians, are held in trust by the Government and may not 
be expended without Congressional authority. 

By disapproving these two bills which were passed in the last days 
of the session, President Roosevelt endorsed the stand taken by Secretary 
Ickes and Commissioner Collier in the matter of preserving and augmenting In- 
dian capital assets. The Indian Service holds that these assets must be 
saved for uses contributing to Indian economic independence. Therefore, the 
distribution of such money for unconstructive purposes is discouraged under 
present-day Indian Service policy. 

In the case of the Red Lake Indians the Department took the view 
that a per capita payment would jeopardize working capital essential to the 
conduct of the tribal lumbering industry, an important source of livelihood 
to these Indians. This danger, plus the absence of dire poverty, the Indian 
Service held to be sufficient reasons for advising Congress and the President 
to withhold distribution. 

The Oklahoma Seminoles were held to be in somewhat the same category 
as far as immediate need is concerned, although in this case the earnings of 
the individual Indians are not as uniform or as dependable as those of the 
Red Lake Chippewas. Nevertheless the Indian Service seeks, by encouraging a 
policy of conservation, to bring the earnings of all Oklahoma Seminoles to a 
satisfactory level, thus relieving the Indians of the need for gifts on the 
one hand or expenditures of capital assets on the other. 

Agitation for per capita distributions to Indians, from tribal funds, 
emanates from many sources, and because such payments sometimes seem to be 
justified by equity and by democratic tradition, refusal is occasionally 
fraught with tension. The Department steadily maintains, however, that future 
Indian welfare depends to a large extent on the building up of assets for in- 
vestment in definitely productive enterprises. 



12 



Among the types of such income-producing investments to which the 
Government now lends encouragement and support is the plan (approved hy Con- 
gress and the Interior Department) for using Cheyenne River tribal funds to 
buy North Dakota lands. A somewhat similar plan in Utah is pending. Pueblo 
Indians are now actually using tribal funds for land buying, for development 
of irrigation facilities and for acauisition of machinery and equipment, all 
of wnich are classified as "means of production." The use of common funds 
for revolving credit loans to individuals is particularly recommended as an 
avenue to economic improvement. 

In the case of the Klamath Indians, further distribution of funds 
was frowned upon by the Government after a per capita payment was made two 
years ago. This year representatives of the tribe, working with Indian Serv- 
ice officials, drafted a plan whereby the sizeable Klamath funds will be de- 
voted to gainful uses. This plan was approved during the last session of 
Congress. 

Many other types of income-bearing investment in various parts of 
the country have been analyzed by Indian Service workers and by Indian tribal 
representatives, with a view to building Indian income and capital. Mean- 
while the Indian Service is opposing the per capita distribution of tribal 
funds where no emergency need exists and the President's action in vetoing 
the Red Lake bill encourages this attitude. 



REORGANIZATION NEWS SINCE JULY 1, 1937 











Results 




Name 


Agency 


State 


Election 


Yes 


No 


Date 


L'Anse 


Great Lakes 


Michigan 


Charter 


226 


7 


July 17 


Lower Sioux 


Pipestone 


Minnesota 


Charter 


42 


1 


July 17 


Prairie Island 


Pipestone 


Minnesota 


Charter 


39 


3 


July 23 


Hannahville 


Great Lakes 


Michigan 


Charter 


42 





August 21 


Quileute 


Taholah 


Washington 


Charter 


37 


3 


August 21 


Fort Eelknap 


Fort Belknap 


Montana 


Charter 


277 


150 


August 25 


Isabella 


Tomah 


Michigan 


Charter 


72 


2 


August 28 


Jicarilla 


Jicarilla 


New Mexico 


Charter 


204 





September 4 


Colorado River 


Colorado River 


Arizona 


Constitution 


141 


33 


July 17 


Wyandotte 


Quapaw 


Oklahoma 


Constitution 


156 





July 24 


Comanche 


Kiowa 


Oklahoma 


Constitution 


162 


432 


August 25 


Hopland 


Sacramento 


California 


Constitution 


8 


19 


August 28 


Salt River 


Pima 


Arizona 


Constitution 


56 


126 


September 3 



13 



ADAPTATIONS OF ESKIMO CLOTHING CRAFT TO MEET MODERN MARKET DEMANDS 

By Virgil R. Farrell, 
Principal, U. S. Government School, Nome, Alaska. 




A Group Of Eskimo Girls With Their Skin-Sewing Instructor 
At The Office Of Indian Affairs School, Nome, Alaska 

In Nome, the well-dressed business man, the office girl, the young 
men and women going on a hike or a ski trip to the hills and the housewife 
going on her daily shopping trip have learned to appreciate the comfort, the 
serviceability and the beauty of well-designed and well-sewed Eskimo-made fur 
garments. Frequent requests from local people for more attractive parkas, 
mukluics, jackets and mittens caused the local representatives of the Office 
of Indian Affairs to give considerable time and study to the field of fur 
clothing and designing. A new parka was designed, put on the market and met 
with such approval as to clearly point the way for even greater possibilities. 
The new garment is not only in demand in Nome ■* word about this garment has 
spread, and every mail brings in new orders. We have inquiries from New York, 
California, South Dakota and all parts of the Territory of Alaska. Not only 
has a new parka been put on the market, but in addition, the market has been 
increased for "arctics" (a fur overshoe), fancy mukluks and mittens, Eskimo 
slippers and fur caps. 



14 



The old-styled parka was usually made of deerskin, tanned with the 
hair on. It was a combined coat and shirt-like garment, reaching almost to 
the knees, and having an attached hood which fitted over the head. The outer 
edge of the hood was finished with a ruff of dog, wolf, fox or wolverine fur. 
The woman's parkas differed from the man's in that the hood was made very 
full at the nape of the neck to provide a carrying place for a baby. The 
trimming of fur tassels and the edging of colored leather in geometric de- 
signs were more elaborate on the woman's parkas than on the man's. The 
woman's parkas were deeply cut up the sides so that the front and back ap- 
peared as flaps. These garments were pulled on and off over the head. All 
of the sewing was- done with sinew. 

The new-styled parka is made of baby faun skin, July faun skin or 
rabbit furs. They are about hip length, having an attached hood which fits 
over the head. This hood can be turned back to form a very beautiful collar. 
The outer edge of this hood has a ruff made of polar bear or wolf fur. The 
woman's and the man's parka are made from similar patterns, and fit trimly 
at the nape of the neck. Calfskin trimming, in a geometric design and in 
either black and white or tan and red color combination is used around the 
wrist and around the bottom of the garment. Fringing this calfskin is a 
narrow strip of wolf or polar bear fur. The garments are opened and closed 
by a zipper. They are double-lined with an inner lining of outing flannel 
and an outer lining of satin or sateen. All of the skins are carefully 
matched to secure effective design and color combinations. 

This new garment has many of the outstanding characteristics of the 
old garment, such as the all-sinew sewing, the parka hood with its fur ruff 
and the characteristic Eskimo geometric designs for trimming. The fact that 
the new garment does not have to be pulled on and off over the head, opens 
and closes by a zipper, that it has a cloth lining, and is made of well-matched 
and graded furs, is of special appeal to our new market. The feature of prime 
importance is that each garment is tailor-made «, 

Our skin-sewing organization is a simple one. The Office of Indian 
Affairs School at Nome for the past three years has been teaching skin sewing 
and designing. Girls of the fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth grades are in- 
structed one and one-half hours daily in this work. An expert native skin 
sewer is hired as instructor. Girls who have been in the class for two years 
or more are invited to work i,n the advanced class along with their mothers 
and older sisters. The advanced class is composed of older women in the vil- 
lage under the supervision of the skin-sewing instructor. Orders for gar- 
ments are taken by the principal who in turn secures the cooperation of the 
native skin-sewing instructor. This instructor with the assistance of the 
sewer takes the measurements, makes the pattern, selects and matches the furs 
and supervises the sewing of the garments. 

In the past the big problem of securing Eskimo garments in Nome 
has been the shortage of furs owned by the natives. To ask them to use their 



15 



own reindeer and other skins to make 
garments for someone else tended to de- 
prive them of the materials necessary 
for their own clothing. Also the fact 
that they had so few furs of their own 
made it difficult to get enough matched 
furs to make attractive garments for 
the "white market." An agreement has 
been made with a local merchant where- 
by he furnishes all the material and 
pays a flat rate for each completed 
garment. The merchant secures the furs 
by trading with the Eskimo people along 
the coast from Barter Island to the 
Kuskokwim River. 

This organization has "been 
under way since November 13, 1936. 
Fifty-three Eskimo women are partici- 
pating in the project. Eighty-two 
pairs of mukluks, sixty fur parkas, 
twelve pairs of fancy mittens, four- 
teen pairs of slippers, thirteen pairs 
of "arctics", three sleeping bags, 
fourteen Eskimo dolls and many other 
articles have been made. 

Over $1,500.00 has been paid 
to the sewers, and raw material to the 
value of $5,000 has been utilized. 




The Collar On This Parka May Be 
Used As A Hood In Cold Weather 



We conclude that here is a 
native industry in its infancy. With 
stimulation through an advertising program, with intelligent supervision on 
the part of experienced community workers and teachers, an "outside" market 
can be created for Eskimo garments. This industry can supplement the summer 
seasonal employment, giving the Eskimos an additional source of income. It 
can act as an incentive for improvement in methods and workmanship. 

It is hoped that the development of this industry will make the Nome 
Eskimos increasingly self-sufficient. Wage-earning opportunities should com- 
pensate in part for the irrecoverable losses which they have suffered as a 
result of drastic changes in their mode of living since the coming of the 
white man. 



16 



INTER 10 R DEPARTMENT REPORT ON SAFETY REVEALS STRIKING ACCIDENT FIGURES 



Three bureaus of the Department of the Interior - the National Park 
Service, the Office of Indian Affairs and the Bureau of Reclamation - have 
reported to the Secretary of the Interior on safety and accident conditions 
in their bureaus and have set up proposals for a health and safety program. 

The figures presented are an impressive argument for greater care 
in the prevention of accidents and their tragic accompaniment of wasted 
health, time, human hopes and money. Here are a few examples: 

From 1931 to 1935 the 1,244 Indian Service accident cases for em- 
ployees which were sufficiently severe to cause loss of time and to be re- 
ported to the Compensation Commission cost the Government $519,951, or $418 
per jn.jured employee . This is reckoned on the basis of personal injury cost 
only and does not include the accompanying damage to property which usually 
runs four or five times the direct cost. 

In 1935 the Indian Service spent $138,510.88 for treatment and 
hospitalization of Indians - not Service employees - who were the victims of 
accidents. Sixty-two of these were fatal, and by 1936 this fatality figure 
had risen to 204. The cost figure given above does not include indirect 
costs, such as special vocational training for Indians permanently disabled. 
Such training often runs $350 per person per year. 

It is true that the Indian Service offers particular hazards because 
of the variety of heavy indoor and outdoor machinery used. Nevertheless, the 
Indian Service accident rate is far higher than rates in private industries 
using comparable amounts and types of machinery, as is also the general acci- 
dent rate throughout the Government service. 

The graphic representation on the next page shows the relation- 
snip of the number of accidents to the number of Indian Service employees for 
1931 to 1935 inclusive, and the same ratios for National Park Service employ- 
ees. (The increase in number of employees in both services is accounted for 
by the addition of E.C.W. personnel.) The record of the National Park Serv- 
ice shows that its more than eight-fold increase in personnel has increased 
accidents only about sixty per cent. Indian Service personnel increased 
during the five-year period about 79 per cent; during the same period, the 
number of accidents rose less - about 56 per cent. The relationship of num- 
ber of accidents to number of personnel in 1935 for the National Park Serv- 
ice was 486 accidents for 17,047 employees, or 2.8 per cent; in the Indian 
Service, there were 302 accidents for 13,060 employees, or 2.3 per cent. 



17 





ID 
00 




Q 
Z 
< 

UJ 

tr 

D 



0) 

H 

O 



O) 



o 

CM 

O" 




CO 

a 


cc 
iii 

0. 

< 

LJ 

> 

m 

D 
Z 



CM 




Ul 





0) 
UJ 
UJ 

>- 
O 
_i 
a. 

-uj- 

u. 
O 

on 
ill 
m 

O- 

Z 



CD 
CO 
l> 
CO 



UJ 

IT 

D 



CM 
CM 

O 
CM 



■<* 

o 
cm" 



U. 


IT 
UJ 

m 

D 
Z 





t 


U) 


o 


Ul 


CO 


tr 




D 




-> 




Z 




u. 


CM 





cc 

CM 


I- 
rn 




o 
u 







o 

CD 

o 

CO' 




CM 

o 

co 




h 





en 




C5) 
10 

CO' 




CD 
CO 




UJ Q" 


Ul 
Ul 


tr y 


>- 


D fc 





— i u 


_i 


a. 


— cc 
ft i!S 


2 

— Ul 


>- 


L_ 


DC " 





5 


tr 

Ul 

00 


D 
Z 


2 
=) 



CD 
CO 

0>" 



CD 
CO 

K 



If) 

UJ 

a: 

D 
-) 
Z 

"u. 

O 

K 

UJ 
CD 

D 
-Z 




CM 

co 

CD 

r-' 



CD 




o 

CO 



(I) 

UJ 

tr 

D 

~i 
Z 

u. 
O 

h- 

o 
u 










18 



Recommendations contained in the report include the employment of 
a small staff whose entire time can be devoted to safety and inspection work* 
and to a strong, long-time program of safety and accident prevention through- 
out the Indian Service. It is urgently hoped that funds may he available for 
this work; whether or not such help is forthcoming, however, employees and 
Indians alike are urged to exercise constant vigilance to prevent injury to 
themselves and others. 

Remember ; One out of every forty-four Indian Service employees was 
in 1935 ; hurt badly enough to lose time in his work; and in some cases hurt 
badly enough to suffer permanent injury. And most of these injuries could 
have been prevented through caution and forethought. 

************ 
SAFETY 

T$y Leo Doud and George Thompson 
Pupils at the Lac du Flambeau School, Wisconsin. 

Ten little Indians were working so fine, 
One broke his neck and then there were nine. 

Nine little Indians were swinging on a gate, 
One fell off and then there were eight. 

Eight little Indians looking toward heaven, 
One missed his step and then there were seven. 

Seven little Indians were chopping up sticks, 
A stick flew up and then there were six. 

Six little Indians were taking a dive, 

One struck his head and then there were five. 

Five little Indians were repairing a door, 
One got a sliver and then there were four. 

Four little Indians were climbing up a tree, 
One fell out and then there were three. 

Three little Indians with a too-short shoe, 
One got a blister and then there were two. 

Two little Indians were cleaning a gun, 

One pulled the trigger and then there was one. 

One little Indian with eyes shining bright, 
He knew the Safety Rules were always right. 



19 



ALASKA, REINDEER INDUSTRY TO BE ADMINISTERED BY 
INDIAN SERVICE EXCLUSIVELY FOB ALASKA NATIVES 



A generation of factional strife in the far frozen north, comparable 
in drama and intensity with the cattle-sheep warfare of the American West, 
came to an end when President Roosevelt signed the "Reindeer Bill" passed at 
the last session of Congress which places administration of one of Alaska's 
major industries upon the shoulders of United States Indian Service officials. 

The Bill, which authorizes appropriation of $2,000,000 to purchase 
all white-owned reindeer interests on behalf of Alaska Eskimos and Indians, 
marks a vital step in the development of this all-L-nportant native industry. 
While the new burden constitutes small additional dollar responsibility com- 
pared to the more than two billion dollars of assets now supervised in 23 
states and Alaska by the Indian Service, it nevertheless imposes a difficult 
responsibility because large areas of sparsely settled territory accentuate 
difficulties and hazards of a task upon which lives of thousands of natives 
depend. 

As recently as July 1, management of the reindeer problem in Alaska 
devolved upon the Indian Service. The new law will add to this industry all 
of the properties hitherto owned and operated by white persons. In the future 
the Alaskan reindeer will be a native responsibility. 

Commenting on the new task of the Indian Service, Commissioner 
Collier made this statement: 

"The Alaskan reindeer industry, born in 1892, is now 
the "basic source of food, clothing and supoort of a large 
percentage of natives. Because of the essential unproduc- 
tiveness of arctic or sub-arctic Alaska, reindeer must con- 
tinue to be the only stable source of food, clothing and 
to a lesser extent, of income for the native inhabitants of 
the reindeer regions. 

"The areas occupied by 15,000 Eskimos and adapted to 
the raising of reindeer is that coastal region stretching 
from Demarcation Point on the Arctic Ocean to Ugashik on 
Bristol Bay near the base of the Alaska Peninsula. Rein- 
deer also live on certain of the Aleutian Islands and on 
Kodiak Island and we hope also we may be able to graze them 
on other islands in southeastern Alaska and in certain 
parts of the interior. 



20 



"The 600,000 to 1,500,000 reindeer in these regions 
have sprung from 1,280 animals imported "by the Government 
from Siberia between 1892 and 1902 to bolster the vanish- 
ing native foods. From 1914 to the present, white inter- 
ests acquired reindeer now amounting to approximately one- 
fourth of the total. These non-native deer graze on ranges 
adjacent to those occupied by native deer or in many in- 
stances on the same range so intermixed as to precipitate 
serious and threatening situations with respect to the wel- 
fare of the natives and to the reindeer industry itself. 

"Fundamentally, the interests of the natives, their 
methods of working, their business, human and life view- 
points and their languages are not those of an energetic 
white owner interested largely in profits. Suspicion, 
jealousy, charges of transgression and profiteering have 
developed. These conflicts could have been prevented be- 
cause they are largely the result of fundamental but dif- 
ferent points of view and racial experiences. Both na- 
tives and non-natives have suffered through the strife 
and the Government in its administration of native affairs 
has been seriously handicapped. 

"Joint use of range and of handling facilities by 
whites and natives will now be abandoned and mixed herds 
will be abolished. 

"The welfare of Eskimos and Indians of Alaska is a 
matter of continuous Federal concern. The industry now 
regained was lost to the natives by failure of the Federal 
Government in past years to keep faith with its wards. To 
resolve acute unrest, to insure social and economic secur- 
ity for these splendid people, to protect capital already 
invested by the Federal Government, we will now acquire 
all reindeer to which whites have title and will forbid 
the sale of live reindeer to anyone in Alaska but natives, 
except for slaughter. We will also regulate the range to 
protect grazing resources. With this accomplished, we 
think the natives of northern and western Alaska will at- 
tain economic security by possessing the one and only food 
industry their ancestral homelands can provide." 



21 




f * 



22 



PAINTINGS DONE BY STUDENTS AT SANTA FE 



INDIAN SCHOOL RECEIVE WIDE RECOGNITION 



"Indiana At Work" has reproduced from time to time photographs of 
some of the paintings by students at the Santa Fe Indian School. Perhaps 
our readers do not know the extent of the recognition which work done at the 
school studio has received. Below is a list of exhibits of the students' 
work during the school year 1936-37. All these exhibits were sent upon re- 
quest of the exhibitor. Those marked "specially invited" were carefully 
selected shows to which only a limited number of American artists were in- 
vited to contribute. 

San Francisco Museum of Art (Sponsored by Mrs. William Denman) . 

Faulkner Memorial Gallery, Santa Barbara, California. 

Public Schools, San Jose, California. 

Central Coast Teachers Institute, Santa Cruz, California. 

International Children 1 s .Exhibit, Santa Rosa, California. 

Museum of Fine Arts, Stanford University, California. 

All-American Watercolor Show, New Jersey State Museum, Trenton 

(specially invited). 
The Watercolor Gallery, Goose Rocks Beach, Maine (specially in- 
vited) . 
Syracuse University, New Tork. 

Berea College, Kentucky. (Held over two weeks by request.) 
Witte Memorial Museum, San Antonio, Texas. 
Hollins College, Virginia. 
Public Library, Little Rock, Arkansas. 
Germantown Friends School, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. (Dorothy 

Canfield Fisher spoke at this exhibition.) 
Oneonta State Normal School, Oneonta, New Tork. 
Clarksville Public Schools, Clarksville, Pennsylvania. 
Greenville Public Schools, Greenville, Michigan. 
Roswell Public Schools, Roswell, New Mexico. 
Frederick Nelson's, Seattle, Washington. (Featured during Drama 

Week. Sponsored by Seattle Woman's Club.) 
U. S. Tacoma Hospital, Tacoma, Washington. (Sponsored by Mrs. 

John Alley.) 
University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma. 
Western State Teachers College, Gunnison, Colorado. 
Eastern Arts Association Convention, Hotel Pennsylvania, New York. 

(Sponsored by Mr. Pedro J. Lemos, Editor of School Arts.) 
Southeastern Arts Association Convention, Hotel Sir Walter, 

Raleigh, North Carolina. (Sponsored by Mr. Pedro J. Lemos.) 



23 



Western Arts Association Convention, Hotel Commodore Perry, 

Toledo, Ohio. (Sponsored by Mr. Pedro J. Leraos.) 
Morris Studios, Cleveland, Ohio. 
Fred Wilson's, Phoenix, Arizona. 
National Education Association Convention, Hotel Statler. 

Detroit, Michigan. (Sponsored by D. N. Pope, 

Secretary, New Mexico Education Association.) 
Meeting of National Association on Indian Affairs, St. Louis, 

Missouri. (Sponsored by Moris Burge.) 
Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe. (Annual show.) 
New Mexico State Teachers' Convention, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 
Second National Exhibition of American Art, Rockefeller Center, 

New York. (Specially invited.) 

Photographs of the work of the painting students of the Santa Fe 
Indian School and articles concerning it were invited by and published by: 

Sc hool Arts Magazine , November 1936. 

Art Education Today , Art Annual of Columbia University, 1937; El 
Palacio, Publication of the School of American Research, University of New 
Mexico and Museum of New Mexico, May 12-26, 1937. 



material. 



The Civil Serv ice Arts Quarterly of London has recently requested 



VISITORS TO THE WASHINGTON OFFICE 



Recent visitors to the Washington Office have included: Charles 
L. Ellis-, Superintendent of Osage Agency in Oklahoma; Alexander G-. Hutton, 
Superintendent of Hopi Agency in Arizona; A. C. Monahan, Area Coordinator 
for Oklahoma District; and Adrian M. Landman, Superintendent of the Five 
Tribes Agency in Oklahoma. 



MORE PERSONNEL CHANGES 



Allan G-. Harper, formerly Field Representative in Charge of Indian 
Organization, has left the Indian Service to become Director of the Technical 
Cooperation - Bureau of Indian Affairs unit of the Soil Conservation Service, 
with headquarters at Denver, Colorado. 

Dr. Joe Jennings, Superintendent of Indian Schools in South Dakota, 
has been detailed to Washington to take charge of the Organization Division. 



24 



SIXTY INDIAN STUDENTS WORK IN MENOMINEE FORESTS DURING SUMMER 
By J. H. Mitchell, Camp Supervisor 



The work camp at Keshena, Wisconsin, for young Indian students 
from the Lake States area has finished a second successful summer. It was 
a CCC - ID undertaking and one which filled a long-felt need - a need for 
some employment outlet for advanced students who intend to continue their 
studies in the fall and who could not find employment elsewhere. 

This past summer the group was a handpicked one: one hundred and 
sixty asked to be enrolled and only sixty could he chosen. School authori- 
ties at Haskell and Flandreau helped in the selection, which was made on the 
basis of ability and financial need. Eighteen was the minimum age require- 
ment. Superintendents made the final selections. Half the number had been 
enrolled the previous summer. 




CCC - ID Enrollee Group At Keshena, Wisconsin 



25 



The "boys worked hard. The objective was control of the blister 
rust which attacks timber, achieved through the eradication of currant and 
gooseberry bushes in the forest. There was also a voluntary class in fores- 
try which had the magnificent Menominee timber stand as a lesson-ground. A 
course in first-aid was a part of the required work for every student. There 
was ample time for a varied recreational program after working hours. 

Student enrollees were under the supervision of an experienced 
camp manager who was wise enough to throw back upon the students themselves 
the responsibility of self-government through their own organization. 

The boys were paid $30.00 a month, $5.00 of which they were paid 
direct and $25.00 of which was sent to their agencies to be saved until Sep- 
tember 1 for counseled expenditure. At the end of the season each student 
had some $60.00 for the year's school needs. 

Superintendent Ralph Fredenberg had much to do with the camp's 
success. Through his efforts Father Eberhart, in charge of the Catholic In- 
dian School at Keshena, lent his best dormitory for housing the students and 
turned over to the camp also a splendidly equipped kitchen and mess hall. 

It was a good summer for this fine group of boys. 



THE CAMP MARQUETTE CANTEEN 

By A. E. Rehberg, Senior Foreman, CCC - ID 
Camp Marquette, Michigan 

Soon after Camp Marquette was established in the Marquette Nation- 
al Forest, some nine miles away from the small town of Eckerman, Michigan, 
the need for a source of supply for small personal needs, such as tobacco, 
tooth paste, shaving cream, candy and the lik^t became apparent. The En- 
rolled Men's Canteen was organized at the camp to meet this need- 
Since its beginning in 1935 the canteen's functions have broadened 
out in several directions. 

The canteen is managed by enrolled men of the camp who are elected 
by the group at mass meetings. Its profits are used for recreational pur- 
poses and have been the means of buying such athletic equipment as baseball 
suits, balls, bats and mits. A moving picture show is given once a week. 
Two pool tables have been purchased by the canteen; also a piano for the 
use of the camp orchestra. A recent acquisition is a good radio. 

The canteen has not only helped the camp's recreational program; 
it has also loaned funds to individuals in times of emergency. But perhaps 
its greatest benefit has been the training it has given a number of camp 
members in modern business practice. 



26 



NAVAJO AND PUEBLO INDIAN DANCING 



(Reprinted from the Indian Art Series of the New Mexico Associa- 
tion on Indian Affairs.) 




Navajo Yeibichai Dancers At Gallup Ceremonial 

In New Mexico and Arizona there are more than 75,000 Indians. Most 
of these people have been trained to dance from the time they were able to 
toddle-, to sing, some of them, as many as four hundred songs from memory (for 
they have never recorded their songs); and to conform to the ancient forma- 
tions of group dancing with solemnity and diligence - that rain may come to 
their dry earth and good may come to their people. Dancing is a serious mat- 
ter with these men, women and even children. It is never taken lightly - 
and with but occasional exception never self-consciously. For the dance is 
symbolic of the obliteration of self - in a desire to make perfect a communi- 
ty effort, an effort that has been refined by centuries of dancers. 

The Navajo still travels long miles over desert and mountain to at- 
tend the nine-day ceremonies - "sings" - where he reestablishes his social re- 
lations with his tribe. With almost four hundred years of Catholicism sur- 
rounding him, the Pueblo Indian still dances for rain in the way his ancestors 
danced. Little has changed. 



27 




The Bow And Arrow Dance 



People pay- 
ing their first visit 
to the Southwest are 
struck "by the dignity 
and poise of these In- 
dian men and women - 
driving their horses, 
hoeing their fields, 
baking their bread. 
Their highly-ordered 
dances reflect the 
orderliness of their 
lives. The erect, 
stalwart dignity of 
a line of dancers 
with their heads up 
and their chests out 
is the tyoical dance 
of the Southwest. 



"The feeling for beauty is vitally connected with balance - bal- 
ance of the body - and a sense of support, as in the case of columns," 
Ruskin wrote. These neo-ole have this balance - and because of it - health. 
It would be interesting to know the actual value Indians receive in the 
exercising of stomach, heart and lungs. When we see children four years old 
and women of eighty or more years dancing under a broiling sun all day long 
- without fatigue, with perfect relaxation of all muscles not actually in 
use - we know how simple and direct and vigorous their lives must be. Wom- 
en dancing with their arms straight over their heads for twenty-two minutes, 
men who run home ten miles from a day's labor on the highway - because they 
like to run, dancers who can do 220 steps a minute for one hour without 
missing a beat of the music ... 

In villages famous for their traditional dancing the old continue 
to be useful long past their given time in teaching the children to dance, 
to chant, to manage the drum. They are resnected by all for their wisdom. 
And almost from infancy the child is made to feel his responsibility to the 
tribe. He shoulders this responsibility solemnly - and with joy in the 
perfection of his dancing -oart. He enters Government school a stalwart 
youngster, rich with songs and the ability to handle paints and designs. 
Grace in work and play and in relaxation are his at a very young age: the 
direct results of his religious life, the prayer of his people for good in 
all things - the prayer, actually, for beauty. "May I walk in beauty," the 
Navajo chants, "May my sons grow strong in beauty." 

In A Dry Country The Religion Has Been Rain 

The dance probably sprang of man's spontaneous leaping up and down 
with delight in the rain when it came - and anxiety for it when it did not. 



28 



For the Southwest is a land of rare water, and water is life. The fact that 
centuries ago the Indian regulated this jumping up and down into an orderly 
- a respect-demanding prayer both beseeching and appreciative - shows his 
dee-D intellectual insight into natural religion. Sir John Frazer suggests 
that the Salii, the priests of the old Italian god of vegetation, jumped 
high to make the grain grow high. In America the rain movements, the slow 
steady monotony, so rhythmical, of the dancers is an even more basic thought. 
Rather than the reality of corn these dancers will carry spruce, the rain- 
producing mountain spruce, if we are to believe our own logical scientists 
who advise the planting of trees to draw clouds to drought areas. 

And as they dance with persistence rather than with excessive move- 
ment the dance is never exhausting. How rhythmically they have related it 
to the natural world in which they live is obvious in every movement of the 
ceremony. Much can be said about this sense of rhythm of motion - the river 
flowing, the rain falling, the wind blowing, the corn swaying, sheep moving, 
people moving, over vast stretches of desert, slowly, surely, persistently, 
eternally. 

And the Indian faced with this world of reality, this little fruit- 
ful earth of the Southwest, has created a religion of fantasy, fantasy in 
which he can seek release from the drudgery of every-day life. 



Nine-Day Cermonies Of The Navajo s 



After the first frost, "when the thunder sleeps", the nomadic 
Navajo awaits the message of the Mountain Chant. He and his family and his 
herds will travel to the "sing" - to listen to the nine-day telling of the 
origin of things, the wanderings of the ancient hero Dsilyidje Qacal who 
visits the House of 
the Butterfly, 
"places . . . roofed 
with light upheld by 
white spruce trees, 
lighted by rainbows, 
floored with sacred 
corn-pollen" - drama 
and song and all- 
night dancing while 
the hero crosses 
bridges of ice or 
cloud or rainbow, 
his way lighted with 
lightning, encoun- 
tering blue and yel- 
low and black and 
white bears. This 
involved myth is the TjaB j^ina! Dance Of The Pueblo Indians 




29 



personal possession of every Navajo - as known to him as the moving pattern 
of his workaday sheep. He himself may aid with the making of the sand -paint- 
ings: under the ponderous direction of medicine men the picture in sand 
grows to enormous size, infinite detail. A sand painting can he 10' x 18' , 
and every trickle of color, every small line is symbolic - and part of the 
medicine man's memory. There he must direct not only the construction of 
each of these large and involved pictures hut also direct the inch-hy-inch 
destruction of the pictures the moment they are completed. In this destruc- 
tion lies the curing properties of the picture, as herbs are drunk, songs 
are chanted and the sacred sand placed on parts of the invalid's body for 
whom the "sing" has been called. No one knows the number of sand painting 
designs used but there probably are at least four hundred. Some designs 
die with the medicine man if he dies without a successor in his clan. 



The Dance - As Social Unity 

These ceremonies lasting for many days are not essentially for 
healing. As in the Mountain Chant the importance of corn and rain are 
signalized, in the sacred hands of the Yeibitchai figure, in the voices of 
the medicine men chanting "with your moccasins of dark cloud, come to us! 
With the rainbow hanging high on the ends of your wings, come to us soar- 
ing." Sacred corn pollen is poured through the crack of the thumb and 
forefinger into the sand r>ainting. This religious meeting of hundreds of 
Indians is a prayer for rain, for food - made majestic by the beauty of 
their dancing, the voices of their singers. Above all it is tribal unity, 
entertainment , fantasy. 



Drama, Humor, Serious Accuracy 

Fantasy so easily becomes drama - conscious drama. As in the 
Mountain Chant the clowning characters, all but nude, daubed in white clay, 
wearing the spectacles and whiskers of the white race, elicit gales of 
laughter from the spectators as they dance around canrofires - miles, hun- 
dreds of miles - from "civilization." We see in almost all Indian dances 
"characters" representative of solemn and controlled emotion, as well as 
the obviously humorous whose lot it is to entertain the crowd. The service 
these harmonious people, these graceful dancers, render their tribe is be- 
yond measure. And as all members of the tribe are dancers, and critics of 
the dance, it is possible to realize the demand that is put uoon performers 
who are engaged in sacred ceremony - ancient songs. 

On the last night of the Night Chant there is one song in which 
the misplacement of one word ruins the ceremonial work of the preceding 
days and the ceremony comes to an immediate close. It is an artistic and 
physical test on which the life of a man may depend, the man who has called 
the "sing" that the pain that has stiffened him to the ground, will go. He 
too, must be perfect in his part even as the singers. For nine days and 
nights, facing death, wearing but a loin cloth and a blanket, he must arise 
and fulfill his part of the ceremony - whether in the shelter of the medicine 

30 




The Deer Dance 



hogan or in the open. How important to invalid, singers and spectators is 
the complicated and intricate song: 

The corn comes up, the rain descends, 
The cornplant comes therewith 
The rain descends, the corn comes up, 
The child-rain comes therewith. 

The corn comes up, the rain descends. 
Vegetation comes therewith. 
The rain descends, the corn comes up. 
The pollen comes therewith. 

(Matthews) 

A test of will, of supreme control, of inner rhythm - while 500 or 
more spectators listen attentively ready to proclaim aloud the omitted syl- 
lable, the misplaced word that will make the long ceremony of many days value- 
less. There is no applause - Indians do not applaud - if the song is rendered 
perfectly, only a relaxation in the crowd is sensed by the unaware white man 
- drunk with the dancing and whooping of the masked figures, the strange stamp- 
ing thud of the Yeibitchai. 



Thes 
tion of the re 
the cost of fi 
a Navajo will 
that may also 
healing and cr 
origin of the 
ing a power wh 
strong prayer 



e winter ceremonies of the Navajo take place in almost any sec- 
servation. The patient for whom the "sing" is given must stand 
rewood and mutton for visitors, dancers and medicine men. Often 
save his money for years to finance this extensive hospitality 
bring sight to his blind child. These great "sings" while of 
op-growing portent, are fundamentally the retelling of the 
tribe, enforcing the unity of the social group as brothers shar- 
ich when brought together is a formidable enemy to evil, a 
for good. 

31 



Medicinal objects used in the Night Chant require a year or more 
to collect. Plans must be laid in advance and carried out according to the 
season by oerformers in the ceremony. Great care to preserve the "living 
force" in the ceremonial objects must be taken. In procuring sacred buckskin 
the exit of the deer's breath must be closed with pollen*, the stone knife 
must be perfect - "if it is broken it is like a dead man"; feathers should 
be obtained from living birds-, eagles caught in traps; fledglings run down; 
pollen collected during the different seasons from the different directions. 
The whole ceremony is a study in minute perfection. The comolex details are 
handled by the "old men" of the tribe - medicine men educated to recognize 
the worthy herbs of the vast reservation - many of them our own medicines 
in primary form. 

Feas t Days In The Indian Pueblos 

Returning to the Pueblo Indians - who dwell in villages not far 
from paved highways - at no time do we find such great communal activity as 
when they are preparing for one of their great ancestral ceremonies. On 
these "feast" days the villages present shining spectacles of newly painted 
blue doors and window sills; the fresh olastering of adobe houses, walls, 
church and kiva has gone on for days - the finger-marked swirls of adobe 
covering every building public or private. This outer clay is brought fre- 
quently from long distances - chosen for its color and moisture resistance, 
ranging from earthy reds to cool grays and almost silvery whites. Indoors 
the walls are similarly -plastered and earth floors tamped to glass-like 
smoothness. 

The plaza is swept and often temporary trees are planted for the 
animal dances. New clothes are bought and hairwashing is indulged in by 
every person in the village - a constant delight and a ceremonial necessity. 
Great stews are made and quantities of bread baked for all visitors. It is 
a period of generosity, hospitality and fraternity - three maxims sacred to 
the Indian. Welcomed to all houses are the hordes of visitors who warm 
themselves at the fires, eat at the expense of their unknown hosts - while 
masked dancers may come and go from house to house - dancing before the 
guests to bless the house of the owner - that it may have friendship and 
plenty forever. 

At Zuni, usually in the early part of December, the Shalako cere- 
mony is held. The visitation of the gods (for we have no oth«r way to ex- 
press the Zuni word "KoKo") is attended with great joy - while the people 
listen to the chanting of their origin and the migrations of their ancestors. 

Masked dancers, appearing seasonally at Zuni, have definite charac- 
ters. One is strongly impressed by the reaction of the villagers to these 
dancing symbols of human nature. For instance there is Kaklo: inraortant, 
cantankerous, fastidious, noble and dignified - but above all fussy. A 
Zuni is called Kako if he has such a nature, just as inquisitive Zuni chil- 
dren are still called "Old Mrs. Stevenson" after the famous ethnologist of 
fifty years ago. 

32 



Dr a matic Ch aracters - Balle t 

It is highly probable that character masked dancers of the Southwest 
are hut a few stages below actual drama with established plot. Songs change 
from year to year as they are made up spontaneously - filled with humor and 
current events to entertain spectators. There is an amazing repertoire of 
mimicry in the dances of Zuni - almost ballet. For instance, when twenty-one 
masked hunters, bows in hand, dance in a single line chanting without a drum, 
looking rhythmically from side to side - serious, intent, stealthy, cat-like, 
on the march. And another dance where two figures with their heads buried 
in a small fir tree turn around and around - lost, depicting graphically the 
migration of the people, seeking "the middle of the world." Two buckskin and 
turquoise-swathed figures, god-leaders, run distortedly with hesitant decided 
rhythm followed by a crowd of lost villagers - reenacting in a snowy dawn the 
coming up of the people from the underworld. Group drama. Possible because 
in the belief of the Zuni every man is Ko-Ko, every villager contains the 
germ of Power. 

Dances are slowly and rarely changed. Rather they are perfected 
and perfected - an idea difficult for our world of individualism to grasp. 
One asks, where does the individual enter? And one can but reply by gazing 
on the expressionless faces of the unmasked dancers. Even the chorus of two 
hundred singing men will present no facial expression, no movement of the 
lios. Some songs have only an occasional word with the remainder of the 
melody being sung with throat sounds. These strange sounds, strange to the 
white man listening for the clear enunciation of each syllable, make it pos- 
sible for the Indian to sing thirty-second notes. So fine is his ear, and 
so broad his imagination, words often become superfluous; and as most of the 
songs are ancient songs intimately known to the audience, words are dispensed 
with altogether and sound alone reveled in. The white man proclaims such 
music the baying of coyotes, senseless sound accompanying dramatic dancing. 




Seorgeous Costuming Of The Animal Dance 



33 



It is difficult to understand why, in one night, a tribe will sing 
more than three hundred songs in the archaic language of an ancestral enemy 
unless, as Prances Densmore points out, songs are preferred in a language of 
broad vowel sounds. Words frequently are sung whose meanings are no longer 
known; and, "bending his intellectual decorum to his sensual will, the Indian 
chooses words from different languages and combines them in his song - for 
sound content alone. The Indian uses sounds and words much as an artist 
uses colors, choosing them carefully and binding them together with those 
strange symbols of notes which can never be rendered on a Keyed instrument, 
much as we try. Without stopping the drum, the rhythm will change from one 
song to the next, language changing also. Yet to our untutored ears such 
music is monotonous; the singers are quiet in expression, their half-opened 
and motionless mouths held at a steady position as throat muscles push the 
tone upward. 

Indian music features no climax, no transcending final note. It 
is more apt to start high, continue in a strong rhythm, dropping into an 
abandoned stop as the chorus and the dancers walk off without further ado. 

The fact that singers are frequently behind or before the ac- 
comoanying drum seems discordant to the tourist. Frances Densmore has found 
that Indians are able to carry two rhythms simultaneously. She says: "The 
Indian trains his ear to distinguish sounds which we fail to notice." 

While the social unity and individual integrity within the tribe 
depend greatly on ceremonial dancing, in closing we might aote that some 
of the most beautiful traditional dances are nowaday^ given for exhibition 
purposes. Indians are intelligent people - fully aware of the art they- 
possess, and their dances which originated under religious imtmlsest as with 
every race, are on the way to becoming art for art's sake. 



HOW AN OKLAHOMA COUNTY WAS NAMED 

This story is told about the naming of an Oklahoma county, soon 
after the achievement of statehood: 

"Near my father's home lived Clem Vann Rogers, the father of Will 
Rogers, who ran the local paper. One day a group of county notables met and 
told Rogers they planned to name the county Oologah after an Indian who had 
lived in the area. 'You can't', said Rogers. 'Why?' said his friends. 'Be- 
cause there aren't enough O's in my type box to be using Oologah in my paper 
all the time.' And so the county was named Rogers." By Thomas P. Wilson. 
Taken from the Bulletin of the Minnequa Historical Society, Pueblo, Colorado. 



34 



TRAINING INDIANS IN SAFETY TECHNIQUE 



The four young men, all enrollees in Indian CCC camps, whose photo- 
graph appears below were selected from the Northwest District to attend the 
American Red Cross Aquatic School at Hicks Lake, Olympia, Washington early 
in the summer. There they had ten days of intensive instruction in the hand- 
ling of boats, safety technique, first-aid and life saving. All four received 
Red Cross certificates at the end of the course. 




Above: Edgar Simmons, of Warm Springs 
Agency, Oregon; Charles Hall of 
Colville Agency, Washington; Lloyd 
Hatch of Tulalip Agency, Washington; 
and Orville Olney of Yakima Agency, 
Washington. 



Below ; Nicholas A. Tinker, 
CCC-ID Leader from Osage 
Agency in Oklahoma, who 
received a certificate 
from the Red Cross aquatic 
training school held at 
Lucerne, Eureka Springs, 
in Arkansas during the 
summer. 




35 



PEOPLE SAID IT OOULDN ' T BE DONE 
By Elizabeth Hart, Home Extension Agent, Pima Agency, Arizona. 



Prospects did look poor for 
community work - as poor as the alkaline 
soil upon which the small community was 
built. About twenty-five families com- 
prise this little community of Sacaton 
Flats. In January 1935 Robert Lewis, 
Indian Farm Aid, and I visited every 
family. From most angles it looked hope- 
less. Plans for a home extension club 
were discussed. Frankly, the response 
was apathetic, except for one young 
woman who promised to help. 

In June a meeting was called. 
Seven women came. Plans were made for 
a food preservation meeting in July. 
Eight women attended this meeting, which 







Women Of Sacaton Flats Displaying 

Their Quilts. Community House In 

The Background. 



was held under a tree for lack of a better place. 

"Could a community house be built?" This question was put up to 
the group and was the subject of excited discussion until August when seven 
women and five men met with the home extension agent to formulate a plan. 
In October, an old road-crew shed was torn down and hauled to the selected 
spot of freshly-cleared desert. The building was reassembled. The men 
worked for canvas to cover windows, for roofing material, for a stove. From 
scrap lumber a dish cupboard, a table and benches were made. The men did 
the work; the women prepared the meals. All of this was done by Indians, 
was directed by Indians and is being used by Indians. 

A community garden was cleared, leveled and planted; a culvert was 
put across the road; and ditches were dug to carry life to the garden - 
water. But the garden had an unhapny ending: rabbits came in hordes. 

The club grew slowly, but it grew, and with it community pride. 
M«n and women used the building for meetings. Community dinners were served; 
the women never let an opportunity go by. They had food stands at fiestas 
and rodeos and the money bags grew fatter and fatter. 

Trees were planted. A huge and very substantial shelter was built 
to give shade for out-of-door activities, such as the July 1936 food preser- 
vation meeting. Dishes and cooking utensils were secured. Some condemned 
school desks were arranged under the shelter. 



36 



Through the cooperation of WPA a sanitary privy was built and paid 
for out of club funds. The club woodpile grew. The yard was raked and planted. 
A rabbit fence and another community garden are planned as soon as water is 
assured. Screens for the present house, a new and larger house, and a commun- 
ity canning center are some of the latest plans. 

The thirty-one members of the home extension club are doing wonders 
with the " Getter bedding" project; 159 quilts and comforts have been completed 
during the past year. Because of the achievements of this group, other groups 
have been organized and many clubs have done better work. They will try any 
worth-while project - who knows what will come next? 



PAP AGO S KEEP UP FARM TASKS IN SPITE OF WAGE WORK 
By Theodore B. Hall, Superintendent of Sells Agency, Arizona. 

In June many Papagos left their E.CV7. and other jobs to go home 
for the wheat harvest, look after cattle and get ready for the summer plant- 
ing. Although this caused the agency some trouble in finding new men, be- 
cause most of the jobs must be completed by June 30th, it made me very happy. 
It made me happy because some have been afraid the people were neglecting 
the fields and the cattle to work at jobs which everyone knows will not last- 
always. The work of developing wells and building roads and charcos is very 
important and these things are all needed to help make the land better, but 
we must also manage to keep up our regular planting and harvesting and look 
after the cattle. 

When this work is all over and there are not many jobs on the res- 
ervation, most of the people will have to depend on the fields, the cattle 
and the wild things we gather to eat, for a living. So it makes me very 
hapoy to know that the people are not forgetting to look after their fields 
and cattle. 

In driving over the reservation, I notice that most of the giant 
cactus are bearing fruit, which is beginning to ripen in some places. I 
hope everyone will gather and make use of as much of this good fruit as -oossi- 
ble. 

During the past year I have seen several new implements on the res- 
ervation and I am glad to know that most of the people who work on the jobs 
are using part of their money to buy harness, wagons, plows and other tools 
needed to help them make a living. 

(From editorial in Aw-0 -Tahm Ah-Pa-Tac (Papago Progress) 



37 



SCREENING HOUSES THROUGH HORSE MANSHIP 

By Ralph S. Hicks, Teacher, Carrizo Day School Community, 

Mescalero Reservation, New Mexico 




Peter Gaines, Harry Co jo And 

Tony Apache Pause In Their 

Work Of Peeling Posts. 



The Carrizo District of the 
Mescalero Apache Reservation is a new 
community, built during the winter of 
1936-37. Sixteen families moved in dur- 
ing the spring. 

The men of the community had 
been working on a rodent control program. 
As it drew to a close, and it became ap- 
parent that the men would have time on 
their hands, I suggested to my Indian 
friends the possibility of holding some 
sort of celebration. As the idea took 
form it became evident that the celebra- 
tion would be in the nature of a two-day 
rodeo, augmented by Indian dances. The 
nearness of a well-known summer resort at Ruidoso insured an audience. The 
proceeds from the admission fees would, we hoped, make a little money for 
our community chest. We had been casting around for some way to finance the 
purchase of screens for the new homes. The people of the community felt that 
a rodeo was something they could do well and something which visitors would 
be glad to pay to see. 

On July 30 we held our first meeting to discuss plans. An open, 
sunny hilltop gave us a fine natural site. John Shanta, the Carrizo member 
of the Mescalero Indian Council, was made chairman. 

By the night of August 3 over 130 post holes had been dug; 130 posts 
had been cut, hauled, and set. A few days later the chutes were built and 
over 600 pine poles had been set to form the corrals and arena fences. The 
arena was 150 feet wide and 300 feet long; and the back corrals were large 
enough to hold about one hundred head of cattle and horses. A timekeeper's 
stand, an announcer's stand and a refreshment booth completed the equipment. 

The women helped too. Mrs. Harry Co jo acted as cook for the con- 
struction crew; Mrs. Hicks, housekeeper for the day school, and Mrs. Franklin 
Torres baked over 1,100 doughnuts to sell; Mrs. Peter Gaines and Mrs. Eugene 
Botella baked over 100 loaves of Indian bread. On the great day, Jessie and 
Rosemary Hicks made the coffee. 



38 



Doing all this construction work within two weeks 1 time was a real- 
ly gruelling job. Frankly, I had been somewhat dubious as to whether the 
community could arrange so ambitious an undertaking within so short a time. 
I think that the planning and carrying out of the construction work and the 
planning for the rodeo program was one of the finest pieces of neighborhood 
cooperation that I have ever seen. These people worked day and night with- 
out a word of bickering or conrolaint. And everything was ready on time. 

Advertising had been carefully carried out and proved to have been 
worth while. Visitors came from California, Arizona, Old Mexico and from 
Texas to see our show, staying the week-end at the Ruidoso resort. Moreover, 
they liked it; in fact one patron said that it was the best show of its kind 
he had ever seen. And the question, "When will you have another one?" was 
heard on every hand. 

I want to list the men and women, and young people also, who helped 
to make the rodeo a success. John Shanta was manager; David King was announ- 
cer. Arena judges were: Leon Botella, Victor Randall, and Gabriel Fetty. 
The timer, aptly enough, was Frank Second. Jake Cojo, John Zuazua, Franklin 
Torres and Sam Randall had charge of tickets. Myrtle E. Hicks was cashier. 
The writer managed the advertising and finance. 

The corrals and chutes were in charge of Eugene Botella, Howard 
Botella, Peter Gaines, Frank Marden and Henry Shields; and the refreshment 
stand was managed by Ella Cojo, Harry Cojo, Bessie Antoine, David Antoine, 
Jesse Hicks and Rosemary Hicks. 



The program included a little of almost everything. We had parades, 
bow and arrow shooting for both men and women, a women's Indian ball game, 
sack races, potato races, 
tugs of war, bronco riding, 
steer riding, roping, wild 
cow milking, horse races 
and Indian dances. Winners 
in the arena events were: 

First Day, bronco 
riding: Reuben Sampson, 
first; George Carlyle, sec- 
ond; and James Enjady, 
third. Second Day, bronco 
riding: Wayne Enjady, 
first; Therman Enjady, sec- 
ond. 




The Back Corrals Were Large Enough 
To Hold ICO Head Of Stock 



39 




Twenty-Six Riders Entered 
The Second Day ' s Events 

Enjady, 25 seconds; and Wallace Enjady, 26 seconds. 



First Day, steer riding: 
John Enjady, first; 
Reuben Sampson, second; 
Bernard Dolan, third. 
Second Day, steer riding: 
John Enjady, first; Ber- 
nard Dolan, second; 
James Enjady, third. 

First Day, calf 
roping: Woodrow Wilson, 
35 seconds. 

First Day, goat 
roping: Victor Randall, 
27 seconds. Second Day, 
goat roping: William 
Peso, 24 seconds; John 



First Day, wild cow milking: William Peso and Lawrence Big Rope, 
58 seconds. Second Day, wild cow milking: William Peso and Lawrence Big 
Rope, 37 seconds; and John Enjady, 45 seconds. 



Second Day, cigarette race: 
Enjady, second. 



William Peso, first; and Wallace 



Receipts amounted to $324.15, of which $80.25 was paid out in 
prizes. General expenses came to $128.78, leaving a net profit of $115.12 
for the community fund. 



This rodeo was the first Carrizo Community undertaking, 
was a success is a fine 
thing, of course; but to 
me, the most gratifying 
feature of all was that 
the community stood on 
its own feet throughout. 
Except for the loan of an 
E.C.W. truck for hauling 
posts, not a cent of out- 
side help was used. The 
Carrizo Apaches gave a 
good show, made it pay 
and gave surrounding com- 
munities a splendid dem- 
onstration of a successful 

enterprise. Arena Officials - Victor Randall, 

Leon Botella And Gabriel Fetty 



That it 





* ■>■» - 



£^H& 



**■»% 



40 



REGULATIONS APPROVED BY BLACKFEET TRIBAL COUNCIL 
WILL BENEFIT GLACIER PARK WILD LIFE 

Hunting regulations now in effect on the Blackfeet Indian Reserva- 
tion adjoining Glacier National Park indicate that the Blackfeet have a strong 
determination to conserve wild life. 

Under the regulations, approved "by the Indian Tribal Council and 
the United States Indian Service, there is an absolute closed season on moun- 
tain sheep and moose and a two-month open season each year on elk and deer, 
during which time only members of the tribe will be permitted to slaughter one 
of these animals. Until adoption of these regulations, there was no closed 
season and no bag limit. 

These restrictions, Superintendent Scoyen of Glacier National Park 
says, will result in park game being protected on their winter range with a 
consequent increase in wild life on the summer range in the park available 
for the observation of visitors. The overflow from the park to the reserva- 
tion will also become larger each year, making more animals available for 
hunters. 



SURVEY REVEALS PUZZLING DEGREE OF INCIDENCE OF RHEUMATIC HEART DISEASE 
" AMONG INDIAN CHILDREN OF MONTANA AND WYOMING 



"... It is remarkable to find a higher nrevalence (of rheumatic 
heart disease) in relatively dry Montana and Wyoming (normal annual precip- 
itation from 10 to 15 inches) among rural Indian children than that found 
among urban children in the vicinity of New York City (normal annual pre- 
cipitation 45 inches). This suggests that either a high susceptibility 
exists for the disease ... on the part of some Indians or that something is 
present in their living conditions that is particularly conducive to the 
spread of the disease. Whatever such factors may be, they remain to be 
analyzed. Attention may be called, however, to the fact that although the 
Indians included in this survey represent a rural (as opposed to an urban) 
population, the degree of crowding that must occur during the winter months 
among their family groups probably rivals or even exceeds that found with- 
in tenement houses in city slums; for the Indian family group often includes 
three generations, their winter dwelling is generally a one-room affair, and 
Montana winters are long." 

(From page 2100 of the July 19, 1937 issue of the Journal of the 
American Medical Association ; "Climate and Rheumatic Heart Disease - A 
Survey among American Indian School Children in Northern and Southern- Lo- 
calities." By John R. Paul, M. D.', and George L. Dixon, M. D. , Tucson, 
Arizona. ) 

41 



EDITORIAL OPIN ION OF FIFTY-THREE YEARS AGO 



In the Indian Office files in Washington is an old scrapbook of news- 
paper clippings. Some of them are absorbingly interesting. Below is what 
was evidently an editorial forecasting and urging the break-up of the Sioux 
domain . 

The clipping unfortunately does not show the date nor the name of 
the newspaper from which it was taken. Since other clippings in the hook are 
dated 1883 and 1884, it is reasonable to assume that the quotation below is 
of approximately the same date. 

" The Future Of R eservations 

"The problem of the great Sioux Reservation shows some of the intrica- 
cies of the Indian question. By the la.st official estimates the Indian reser- 
vations in the United States include 135,998,101 acres of land - an area, in 
the aggregate, of 212,497 square miles. The number of Indians in the United 
States, exclusive of those in Alaska is 265,565. In other words, each Indian 
has on the average nearly a square mile of territory. Perhaps it will convey 
the idea, a little more clearly to say that an area, as large as that of all the 
New-England, and Middle States combined, with Maryland and three-fourths of 
Ohio added, is held under existing treaties and acts of Congress, for the 
maintenance and use of a population not so large as that of the city of Cincin- 
nati at the census of 1880. Nearly one-fifth of this area is contained in the 
Indian Territory where the Indians have been organized into a condition of 
society resembling that of white civilization. Of the rest it is not to be 
forgotten that a. large proportion' is unfit for cultivation and that it would 
be obviously unfair to compare, acre by acre, land which can be used only for 
hunting and here and there for pasturage, with land capable of cultivation. 

"Y/hile the Indian domain, when expressed in figures, seems greater 
and more valuable than it really is, the fact remains that a vast territory, 
for greater than the needs of the people to whom it is devoted, is locked up 
by treaty and statute, and the time is not far distant when some systematic 
and just policy should be devised of dealing with this troublesome question. 
It is absurd and unreasonable to suppose that, as the tide of immigration 
crosses the continent, the white races can be kept out of favored regions 
simply because when they were of no value to us they were deeded by the 
Government to some petty tribe. The logic of progress is against any such 
idea. Our statesmen must see to it that the rights of Indian owners are 
respected, that they get an equivalent for their property. A Government like 
ours cannot do injustice to any one, least of all to the Indians, who are com- 
pletely at its mercy. But it is no more reasonable to suppose that in the fu- 
ture the great Indian reservations, disproportioned to the wants of their 
tribes, can be kept intact than to suppose that a single obstinate property- 
holder can prevent the building of a railroad. 



42 



"The great Sioux Reservation is a good case in point. According 
to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, this contains 48,000 square miles - an 
area larger than the State of New York - with a population of about 24,000 
inhabitants, or about one to every two square miles. The total number of 
acres cultivated on the reservation is only 3,484, and most of these can 
hardly be said to be cultivated. Lying between the Missouri River and the 
Black Hills in western Dakota, the bulk of the reservation stands as a bar- 
rier, isolating the Black Hills and preventing the Dakota Central and Mil- 
waukee and St. Paul railroads from building to the west and the Northern 
Pacific from building southward. A Senate committee proposes that 10,000,000 
acres, making a strip more than 100 miles wide westward from the Missouri to 
the Black Hills and another northward to the Northern Pacific, be thrown open 
for settlement, the money received for its sale to be held perpetually by the 
Government as a fund for the benefit of the Sioux, who are also to receive 
cattle and farming utensils. 

"There can be no question that a measure like this is in the inter- 
est of civilization. But it is satisfactory to see that the committee has been 
especially careful of the rights of the Sioux. The provision of the treaty 
of 1863, disregarded in the Black Hills treaty of 1876, that all treaties 
must be ratified by three-fourths of the adults of the tribe, was disregarded 
also in the agreement of last year for the cession of this territory. That 
agreement having been set aside, the Senate bill now provides for the assent 
of three-fourths of the adults. This ought to prevent a repetition of the 
frauds charged against the former agreement. But the Indians are troublesome 
persons to bargain with. They are apt to deny having made a bargain if they 
think they can get better terms by doing so, and can raise their prices as 
fast as white men. This adds to the difficulties of the reservation question 
which bid fair to increase as time goes on." 

*********** 



A LITTLE PIMA. GIRL GOBS VISITING 

By Frances Johnson 
Pima Reservation, Arizona. 

A long time ago we went to the Maricopa Reservation to see our 
cousin. We saw everything there that we don't see around here. We ate every- 
thing there because they had a feast. They had everything there, they sold 
everything too. We came back the next morning. It was on Fourth of July and 
that was all I did. 

(Reprinted from Salt River Sentinel .) 



43 



THE BUFFALO TELLER SPEAKS AGAIN 

By Herbert Holy Elk 

Wanblee, South Dakota 

Once, during a time when the buffalo had been scarce and the people 
were troubled, a party of Sioux hunters set out. They hunted until they were 
weary, and found no buffalo. Finally they dismounted at a small knoll to 
rest and smoke. One of the hunters discovered a locust in the grass at his 
feet. (Now the locust was the Indians' friend, not a menace. He was said 
to know where the buffalo could be found.) So these Sioux hunters collected 
trinkets, arrows, and tobacco, laid them beside the locust, and daubed him 
with paint. "Grandfather locust", said the leader of the narty, "we offer 
you these gifts. Buffalo Teller, point out to us the direction where the 
nearest herd of buffalo roam." The locust circled, cut a few capers and then 
pointed with his horns straight south. They sent a scout in that direction. 
In a short time he returned. "Speak the truth", said his fellow-hunters. He 
rose and gestured: "Over the hill in the valley is a herd of buffalo", he 
said. "Hayee," said the hunters. "Once more old and young shall eat!" And 
in truth they found the buffalo where the locust had pointed. 

About a year ago, when the dust storms aijd drought were helping the 
depression and the prairies were a mass of yellowish dying grass, many white 
farmers moved and went to the western coast. It apoeared as if nothing would 
grow here again. But today grass has come again and there are good prospects 
of raising grain and feed. It has rained and it will rain again. 

Today a handful of old Indians were talking under the shade of a 
building. They found a locust in the grass. "Let us ask him where we can 
make a living", said one. "Let us see if he will point to the western states 
and the western coasts where our white brothers went. We will ask him where 
we should go to make a living." 

The locust danced about, twitching his horns here and there; final- 
ly he pointed straight down. He seemed to say, "Till the land here . Raise 
gardens; raise grain and corn; milk the cows; feed the chickens; raise live- 
stock. Mother Earth straight down will give you all these - here in your own 
country." 



YAHOLA . AGED CREEK LEADER , DIES SEPTEMBER 3. 

On September 3, 1937, William Green Yahola, famous Creek leader, 
died. He was one of the few surviving members of the council which governed 
the Creek Indians before Oklahoma's statehood. He had represented his people 
on many occasions and was famed for his ability as an orator. 



44 



CCC - ID ACTIVITIES AT P AWNEE AGENCY, OKLAHOMA 




Impounding Dam Construction - Otoe Reservation 




Impounding Dam Construction - Kaw Reservation 



45 



A TRAINING SCHOOL FOR ROAD WORK AT TRUXTON CANON , ARIZONA 

By Cecil C. Edwards, Senior Clerk 

At the Truxton Canon Agency, Isadore Feinstein, road engineer, has 
"been conducting a training school for the benefit of the Indians and white 
men working on roads. Others who are "interested have been invited to attend 
these meetings, which have "been held each Wednesday evening for one hour. 
Attendance is voluntary. The average attendance from November 15, 1936, to 
the present time has "been 15 and has "been as high as 21. Various subjects 
which are of interest to those who are building roads are discussed. 

Mr. Feinstein has charge of the meetings and has given lectures 
dealing with modern highway location, design and construction in line with 
the type of highway being constructed by the road department; also instruc- 
tions in stone masonry work, demonstrated with blocks of wood. A short 
course in trigonometry has also been given. It is planned to continue this 
course indefinitely, at least until all features of road location and con- 
struction have been covered and discussed. 

The men take a great -interest in these meetings. Immediate results 
have been evident. The survey party, for example, consists of three full- 
blood Indians. 

With the exception of a few of the skilled positions, the road work 
is being carried on by Indians, all of whom are full-bloods. It is the hope 
of those in charge to train the Indians eventually to handle skilled positions, 
either in the Service or with outside contractors on similar work. 



COVER PAGE PICTURE 
On the cover page of this issue of "Indians At Work" appears a 
view of Bull Lake on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming. This picture 
was taken from an album of Shoshone pictures which was submitted for use 
in "Indians At Work." Mr. H. L. Dennler took this photograph of Bull Lake. 



46 



FROM CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS - INDIAN DIVISION REPORTS 



Simmer Family Camps At Fort 
Peck ( Montana ) Upon going over a re- 
cent bulletin received from the Wash- 
ington Office, dealing with Sun Tan - 
ning , I have at last found something 
upon which it is not necessary to 
caution the enrollees of this reser- 
vation. We are all naturally dark- 
skinned and there is already a. tend- 
ency to avoid further tanning. 

I came across several cases of 
"Summer Complaint" among the chil- 
dren of the camps . They were soon 
taken care of after cautioning the 
mothers of their care. The mothers 
usually say, "It must he something 
he ate." How true I One of the fore- 
men told me, "I saw the kid eating 
raw biscuit dough yesterday, just 
like it was good." 

Normally there isn' t a finer 
place in the world for the Indian 
families than right in the summer 
family camps because here they have 
sunshine, fresh air and water. Some- 
times they have small wild game and 
a few wild fruits such as Juneberries 
and Choke-cherries. Alvy B. Casper , 
Camp Assistant . 

Anthrax Control At Winnebago 
(Nebraska) This work consists of 
sanitary measures taken to aid in the 
checking of one of the most dreaded 
diseases of live-stock. Anthrax has 
destroyed a comparatively large numb- 
er of valuable horses and cattle in 
Knox County. C. H. Gregory , Senior 
Foreman. 

Blister Rust Control Work At 
Keshena ( Wisconsin ) The student blis- 



ter rust control crew finished work 
in the Neopit area. Approximately 
250 acres of young pine were pro- 
tected in this stand. Quite a heavy 
infection center was also located 
in this stand while the crews were 
working in it. This made the work 
of very great importance and the 
students did a real good job of it. 

Two miles of the Bass Lake 
Truck Trail have been graveled. The 
gravel is of a poor quality but it 
is working into the clay roadbed to 
form a good surface. Walter Ridling - 
ton . 

Work On Trailers At Fort Berth - 
old ( Montana ) During the past few 
weeks we have been working on trail- 
ers which are to be used by CCC em- 
ployees who are working on truck 
trails. There are four under con- 
struction at the present time. The 
frames and the sidings have been 
completed. We are working on the 
inside of the trailers. For the 
roofing ply-wood is being used and 
also rubberoid. We oiled the in- 
side and outside of the roofing. 
The outside is being painted green. 
Byron H. Wilde . 

Erosion Control Project At Mis - 
sion ( California ) Work was resumed 
on the erosion control project where 
a series of four rock check dams 
have been under construction. Three 
of these had been completed and the 
fourth is partially done. 

All the men have taken a partic- 
ular interest in this project as 
they realize the necessity of con- 



47 



serving the small area of meadow land 
available on this reservation. Con- 
sequently, during the summer shut-down 
when a storm threatened, the crew went 
out on their own time and put in three 
days putting the partially completed 
dam in shape to withstand the expected 
storm. James F. O'Co nnor. 

Fire Suppr ession At Colv ille (Wash- 
ington) We have wood cylinders and 
scales which we use to determine the 
humidity of the air and are keeping 
a daily record. The humidity has been 
rising and falling as the temperature 
ranges between seventy-two and eighty- 
five degrees. We are keeping this 
record to determine such dates as 
when the danger of fires would be the 
most destructive to our forests. We 
have been quite fortunate in not hav- 
ing any fires of any damage recently. 
Ray Toulou, Camp Assi stant. 

Rainfail Beneficial To Forest 
Rese rve At Cho ctaw-Chickasaw Sanatori- 
um ("Oklahoma) We had 5.94 inches of 
rainfall the early part of this week, 
as per the gauge at the Choctaw-Chick- 
asaw Sanatorium plant. This rain was 
needed and will be very beneficial to 
the Forest Reserve. We also had 1.62 
inches of rainfall later in the week. 

Considerable timber was ruined 
last year because of the drought. We 
have had no drought this year, but have 
had some very hot and dry weather. We 
do not believe, however, that any tim- 
ber was. ruined this year. Dr. William 
Van Cleave , Superinten dent. 

Fire Suppression At Wind Riv er 
( Wyoming ) Two days were spent in fight- 
ing a small fire at Mexican Pass. The 
fire was under control in twelve hours 
but some men remained on fire duty to 



see that it didn't break out again. 
Only the last two days of this week 
were spent on the main projects. 
The bridge crew spent one day in the 
mountains getting timber for the 
bridges. A crew of men started to 
build the concrete bridge at Teapot 
Draw. John Gl oyne . 

Flan s For Canals And Dam Com - 
pleted At Navajo ( Arizona ) Plans 
have been completed on both the Luk- 
achukai diversion dam and the Tohtso 
irrigation canal. Plans are also be- 
ing prepared for the Lukachukai Canal. 
The men are very much interested in 
these jobs. M. M. Hutchin son , As - 
sistan t Engineer . 

Camp Maintena nce . All the boys 
are interested in their kitchen work. 
The boys are learning and doing good 
work. They serve an average of 465 
meals per. day. They are anxious to 
get uniforms to wear in the kitchen 
and dining room. The new mess hall 
is nearing completion. Jimmie White 
Cloud and Wood y Bane . 



New Reservoir To Be Built At 

Rodman W. 
Courchene 



Fort Belknap ( Montan a) 
Chamberlin, assisted by P. 
and J. Adams, spent a week in the 
field running topography of the res- 
ervoir area to determine the area and 
capacity of the reservoir for the 
site on Lone Tree Creek, having a 
proposed natural spillway. Detail 
topography for the proposed natural 
spillway will be run next week. The 
reservoir for this site will cover 
a relatively large area and will be 
rather shallow considering the stor- 
age capacity, but the reduced cost 
of a natural spillway, as compared 
to a concrete shute spillway, pro- 
viding it is suitable, may warrant 
the choice. 



48 



The instrumentman spent three 
days of the week in the camp drafting 
room on this project. Paul A. Blair , 
Instrumentman . 

Pest Control Work At Pine Ridge 
( South Dak ota) Grasshopper Control: 
The work went on this week as usual; 
however, we did not poison as many 
acres this week as we have done in 
the past "because the project is about 
over for this season. We are rather 
picking up loose ends. This necessi- 
tates much driving. J. W^ Irving . 

Prairie Dog Control ; We are over 
the northwestern part of the reserva- 
tion. We are now working toward the 
southern part. We find new prairie 
dogs in the old dog towns and some new 
towns - hut very small. Shields Thund- 
er Bull . 

Work At Colorado River (Arizona) 
This week we finished stringing and 
tying all the wire on the iron poles. 
This was somewhat of a relief as con- 
siderable trouble was experienced in 
raising and tying the wire in this 
section of the line. 

We found it necessary to "brace 
the arms on all corner pipe poles as the 
natural weight and strain of the wire 
on the inside of the curve has a tend- 
ency to pull the arras down and out of 
alignment, caused from the rake of 
these poles. For bracing we intend to 
use two wraps of .148" galvanized iron 
wire around the ends of the arm pulled 
down to an additional guy hand and 
thimbles placed 20" below the arm. 
This, we believe, will be as economical 
and serviceable as a special brace. 
A. M. Chisholm. 



Meeting At Osage ( Oklahoma ) 
A monthly meeting was held in Aug- 
ust, with an attendance of approxi- 
mately 120 present. The local traf- 
fic officer, Mr. 0. W. Henson, gave 
a very good talk on state and city 
traffic regulations. 

The different projects are ad- 
vancing as much as could be expected 
under the present weather conditions. 
However, recently, we were fortunate 
in receiving an excellent rain which 
will improve the working conditions 
to a great extent. William H. La- 
bodie. 

Activiti es At Shawnee ( Oklahoma ) 
We had a fairly active week and com- 
pleted two large terrace outlet 
structures, one being a 15-foot weir 
and the other outlet structure hav- 
ing a 17-foot weir - each having a 
depth of four feet when completed. 

The digging of the baffle pits 
for the terrace outlet structures 
has been somewhat slow due to the 
dry weather during the summer. The 
ground is dry and hard. We also com- 
pleted 140 feet of channel construc- 
tion during the week. 

We had our usual Safety Program 
Meeting and due to the recent heat 
wave, the discussion of sunstroke and 
heat exhaustion was taken up, includ- 
ing the preservation of man -power. 
Alex Cadue , A ssistant Leader . 

The Kickapoo CCC crew completed 
two baffles this week and also did 
some channel construction work. The 
men have been working steadily, en- 
deavoring to complete the work. G. 
Kishketon. 



49 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES 




3 9088 01625 0342